Monday, May 25, 2020
For the past two and a half years I have been working as a Periodontal Assistant accommodating two doctors. Combined, both doctors have over thirty years experience within the field of Periodontics. The field of Periodontics focuses predominately on the prevention, treatment, and maintenance of periodontal disease. Treatment of periodontal disease, commonly is managed by; the removal of excessive tissue, bone and tissue grafts, and extraction of problem teeth. However, at our practice, we not only manage periodontal disease, but replace missing teeth with dental implants. Dental implants are an alternative to other restoratives like bridges and dentures. On an ideal day, we place about five to ten implants; and the overallÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The healing time for the implant is crucial because the implant Ã¢â¬Å"fuses with the jawbone through a process called osseointegrationÃ¢â¬ (Dental Implants). The surface of the implant itself is vital in the osseointegratio n process. As a result, several Ã¢â¬Å"trial and errorÃ¢â¬ tests have been conducted over the past several decades in determining the most ideal surface. According to a studies review by; Gupta, Dhanraj, and Sivagami, a Ã¢â¬Å"sandblasted and acid etchedÃ¢â¬ surface produces the best results when integrating. Sandblasting is a method that produces a Ã¢â¬Å"roughÃ¢â¬ texture on the implants surface; while acid etching Ã¢â¬Å"leads to micro-texturizing and cleaningÃ¢â¬ (Gupta, Dhanraj, and Sivagami). Now that we know how implants achieve durability and stability, lets compare to materials mainly used in bridges. Bridges are commonly comprised of the following; porcelain fused to metal, gold alloys, or base metal alloys. Porcelain fused to metal is often most peoples choice when it comes to bridges because, its a financially conservative cosmetic material. According to an ADA table titled; Indirect Restorative Dental Materials; a porcelain fused to metal bridge is ex tremely visually unappealing due to the visible metal portion close to the gum-line. Additionally porcelain fused to metal bridges are more capable of fracturing and wearing down opposing teeth over time. Unlike bridges, implants are not only Ã¢â¬Å"built toShow MoreRelatedHave You Ever Been In Dental Limbo?..... Who Do I Go To?1625 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHave you ever been in dental limbo?..... Who do I go to? Am I going to a good dentist? Are they in my insurance plan? Will they treat me well? Over the past few years, I felt like I was on a dental quest after my long-time dentist retired. I never realized that it would be that hard to find another dentist who met my strict requirements - clean sanitary office, friendly, helpful sincere office staff , and, the most important factor, a great dentist who not only treats you with respect, listensRead MoreCure Tooth Decay : Heal And Prevent Cavities With Nutrition1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbout seven months ago, I walked out of a dental office with a pretty serious quote for dental work that was needed to be done on 8 different cavities they found in my teeth. I was confused. I eat a pretty good diet. How could my teeth have cavities? I brush and I floss every day. How could this happen? I told my dentist that I had heard about the Ã¢â¬Å"remineralizationÃ¢â¬ of teeth and even curing tooth decay and cavities with certain staples in your diet, and asked him his opinion on the subject. Of courseRead MoreCase - Dr. BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s Dental Office2477 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesrange of dental care from simple teeth cleaning to complicated dental surgery and implants. 1.1.2 Price The practice is no member of one of the HMOs, because Dr. Beckett was not of the opinion that she could provide the level of service she wanted, at the reimbursements given by the HMO. Therefore she offers now her dental services at a higher price, but therefore also at a higher quality. 1.1.3 Promotion The practice does with 2000 Ã¢â¬Å"activeÃ¢â¬ patients very well, at the moment. Dr. Beckett got her patientsRead MoreFluoridation Of Drinking Water Fluoridation Is A Great Case Of Clinical Perception Prompting Epidemiologic Examination And Group Based General1756 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesflouridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries , family planning and so on . Body Let us see about the two major events that played a major role in the public health along with the evolution of science .They are Flouridation of Drinking water and Family planning . FLUORIDATION OF DRINKING WATER Fluoridation of group drinking water is a main consideration in charge of the decrease in dental caries (tooth rot) . The historical backdropRead MoreDetection And Treatment Of Malocclusions And Other Dental Deformities2362 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAbstract Detection and treatment of malocclusions and other dental deformities are a considerable field of work in the plan of orthodontic treatment. Severe malformations of the midface such as maxillary or mandibular deformity can be treated by the distraction and reformation of skull bones. During an operation, the appropriate bony part of the mid-face is separated from the rest of the skull (osteotomy), slowly moved into the ideal position by way of a distraction device. In the current clinicalRead MoreDna Analysis And Identification Of Missing Bodies Essay3299 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesidentification of putrefied bodies is a common task in forensic routine work. The identification of human corpse is usually carried out by comparing ante mortem and post mortem data such as external features like scars, tattoos and fingerprints, medical implants or old injuries etc which is specific to every individual. However, there are cases when these methods fail and Genetic Identification may be the only alternative left. DNA can be extracted from all the body tissues, but it is of great concernRead MoreJob Shadowing a Dentist3438 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesentirety of their mouth. They need a dentist to stop the anguish. Luckily, dentistry offices are located in almost all communities throughout the nation which makes it more convenient for someone to go get his or her teeth checked out. Dentists work with areas of the mouth including the teeth, gums, and other tissues. Dentistry is absolutely essential for maintaining overall health and well-being. And, believe me, they can relieve the excruciating pain of a toothache. The art of dentistry has rootsRead MoreThe Importance of Having Health Insurance2385 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesand surgical expenses. If a person were to lose an arm or a leg, insurance would help pay for the cost of a prosthetic or surgery to repair the arm or leg. Most insurance companies offer subsidies such as vision and dental plans to assist with anything in regards to your eyes or teeth. There are a very few insurance companies that do offer a hearing plan, but most of those companies are private insurance companies. (Gandal)So, what about a person that is born with hearing loss or loses their hearingRead MoreCeramics in the Medical Field2984 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesBio-safe materials are non-toxic and non-inflammatory as to avoid rejection from the body. Where the bioactivity is how it reacts to biological material and processes. Typically ceramics have been used in surgical replacements such as bones and teeth. These ceramics must be designed and optimized in order to per form in the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s aggressive internal environment. Newer ceramics are being researched in order to improve structure, functionality, and life expectancy. Some ceramics like calciumRead MoreFlorence Nightingale: a Leader in Nursing2367 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesShe believed that deficiencies in these five factors produce illness or a decline in health. Florence Nightingale played an important role in the Crimean War (1854-1856) by recruiting female nurses to provide care to the sick and injured. When she got there she was mortified by the conditions of the hospital and the way in which the soldiers were being looked after; most of them died from sickness due to the hospitals conditions rather than battle wounds. Nightingale and her nurses were able to transform
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Biology, Pragmatism and the Question of Contradiction ABSTRACT: In this article I present H. R. Maturanas work as an alternative that reinforces pragmatism in the task of thinking philosophy through the evolution of biological species. I try to demonstrate how Maturanas biology dilutes the principal argument against American Neo-pragmatism. This criticism uses the argument of performative contradiction as it has developed in the European Neo-Kantian philosophy. Thus, I begin by presenting Apel. s arguments which are contrary the perspective of the detranscendentalization of the Post-Nietzschenian philosophy. I conclude that analytical philosophy is a fecund point of contact between Maturanas biology and American Pragmatism, andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Then, I would like to use a specific kind of reasoning as the filament of this discussion. I reefer to the argument of the performative contradiction, central in contemporary philosophical discussion. The argument of performative contradiction had been used by Aristotle to justify the Principle of Contradiction. As shown by Cirne-Lima, contemporary philosophy has rescued this type of argument trough the Philosophy of Robert Heiss, Austin and Apel. In one of his papers, Apel points to the historical origins of the argument that he proposes as a method to establish a non-metaphysical ultimate foundation to knowledge and ethics. In this article, Apel begins his argumentation by partially accepting the MÃ ¼nchhausians trilemma. As has been demonstrated by Hans Albert every ultimate foundation implies: either a) in a regression to the infinite; b) in a logical circle in which part of the argumentation includes exactly that we would suppose to be settled; or c) in a dogmatic interruption of the foundational regress. Apel accepts only partially this trilemma because he believes that this difficult in the structure of ultimate foundation is applied only to Metaphysical Philosophy and not to Post-Metaphysical Philosophy. In fact, Apel attempts to demonstrate the possibility of a non-metaphysical ultimate foundation. Apel reflects about the Falsificationism and attempts to transport into Philosophy what was supposed to be the mechanism ofShow MoreRelatedEssay on Silent Spring - Rachel Carson30092 Words Ã |Ã 121 Pagesliterary career by majoring in English. As had always been her habit in school, the bright but reserved student focused on academics rather than socializing and was soon one of the colleges top scholars. Less expected was Carsons changing her major to biology after taking a class taught by a captivating young zoology professor named Mary Scott Skinner. In 1929, after graduating with high honors, the writer who would someday earn fame for her work on marine life got her first look at the sea as a summerRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pages1910 but spent most of his career in the United States. He established his early career as an economist at a number of universities. As his work developed, he became increasingly interested in the idea that there could be a fusion of key ideas in biology and economics to produce what came to be known as Ã¢â¬Ëevolutionary economicsÃ¢â¬â¢. This concern to look at the human aspects of economics was reflected in his interest in ethical, religious and environmental issues in relation to economics. He was also aRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words Ã |Ã 1186 PagesWeighted Weighted Weighted Weighted Score Score Score Score Score Score Score 60 20 10 55 70 40 10 60 Chapter 2 Organization Strategy and Project Selection PROJECT 7: GRAND ISLAND The true story of a group of junior-high biology students who discover that a fertilizer plant is dumping toxic wastes into a nearby river. The moderate-budget film depicts how students organize a grassroots campaign to fight local bureaucracy and ultimately force the fertilizer plant to restore
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
School Uniforms are a Waste About one in five public schools in the US are requiring students to wear a uniform (Flam). Children at these schools are all forced to wear the same bleak clothing as everyone else, day after day. They have little outlet for self expression which often makes students feel worse about themselves or resort to unsafe behaviors as a method of showing their personality. Advocates claim school uniforms might help kids feel a sense of community and contribute to academic success. However, they curb childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s social development and do not benefit students as proponents argue. Some people assert that uniforms are valuable in a school environment. For example, they put an emphasis on sameness throughout the students.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Capital will eventually run out and students will be forced to buy their own uniforms. This would result in several students left wearing the same outfit multiple times a week which would draw criticism from other children and further expose poverty. Finally, uniforms are partially responsible for racism in communities. According to Dr. Derrick Campbell, an expert in Educational Leadership, Ã¢â¬Å"Mandatory uniform policies in public school are more commonly found in high-poverty areas.Ã¢â¬ On average, three and a half times more African Americans and Hispanics live inside high-poverty areas than outside them (Campbell). A large divide like this teaches adolescents that minority groups must wear uniforms while white children donÃ¢â¬â¢t. Uniforms impede on the development of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s minds and opinions . In addition to interfering with social development, uniforms do not promote classroom productivity. In fact, a recent study from the Ontario Student TrusteesÃ¢â¬â¢ Association indicates that more than six out of ten students donÃ¢â¬â¢t think wearing a uniform would make the school climate better (Johne). This is a common theme among students and experts alike. Moreover, the group Clifton Asserting Parental Rights, which stopped two tries to implement uniforms by the Clifton Board of Education, firmly believes that uniforms have little benefit. To back this up, Ã¢â¬Å"TheShow MoreRelatedSchool Uniforms And Schools Uniforms1211 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSchool uniforms began their revolution in private schools; they represented a unique appearance, and provided a safe environment for the students attending. Private and Catholic schools were clever enough for implementing school uniforms, because without their influence public schools would have not adapted on creating a dress code f or students. By introducing school uniforms in school policies they have managed to impact students learning environment in reducing stress, changing studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviorRead MoreUniforms in School726 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe standard issue school uniform of khaki, navy and white once exclusive to the private parochial institutions is becoming a common requirement in public schools across the nation. This trend that was first suggested for public schools in 1980 by then D. C. mayor, Marion Barry, to help diminish the social stigma of low income students has grown significantly in both numbers and reasons (Lawrence, 2013). In 2010, it was reported by the National Center for Education Statistics, that nearly 19% ofRead MoreSchools and Uniforms733 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSchool Uniforms Uniforms in schools are a big debate around the world. Should we have uniforms in schools? The answer is yes because uniform help the schools. They bring to table a great deal of help because students are getting bullied, killed, and some may not have as much as other when shopping for clothes. Having uniforms bring safety to schools and what goes on after school. Why do we need uniforms? Most student have their own style, but a common argument against school uniforms is thatRead MoreSchool Uniform And School Uniforms937 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSchool Uniform School uniforms keep students focused on their education not in their clothings. When all students are wearing the same outfit, they are less concerned about how they look and how they fit in with their peers. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easier for parent and students do not spend time choosing appropriate outfit for school day. It helps students can only concentrate on their schoolwork. Education is one of the big institutions for every kid that go to school. Also education is the roots that will help peopleRead MoreSchool Uniforms And Schools Uniforms819 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesas school uniforms, many are quick to deem them as unjust and avoidable. What these individuals do not know is that, in fact, school uniforms would enhance how the learning environment functions. Surely, when schools provide their students with uniforms, they are not providing their students with dreadful apparel, they are providing their students with an opportunity to change; whether it be a chance for a student to change t heir role academically, or a chance for a student to fit in. School uniformsRead MoreSchool Uniforms1143 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSchool uniforms make things more complicated Firstly, school is the place where all of us step in at a very tender age. In one word, life begins at school. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not just education but school gives us the platform to nurture our faith, emotions in such an early stage of life. The importance of making friends, working as a team- we learn all these in school. And wearing the same dress definitely brings a sense of unity among students. In every school there are students from different backgrounds butRead MoreSchool Uniforms: Yes or No?2109 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages3 March 2011 School Uniforms: A Non-Military Proposal for Swedens Students The word school uniform has negative connotations for many people. It makes them think of war, of soldier, of death, brainwashed airheads doing exactly the same as everybody else. It makes them think of reformed, collectivized groups of people with no personal identity. There are, however, reasons for the existence of the uniform; one of them being, as the name suggests, the purpose of uniting. At schools all around theRead MoreDress Codes And School Uniforms1248 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesembarrassing than being dress coded at school? Enforcing a dress code among children is unfair because it not only discriminates against people but it destroys someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s whole day. Dress codes and school uniforms are meant to increase student achievement and make everyone equal but instead it only hurts people. Most school dress codes are unnecessary and are sexist. Enforcing dress codes is suppose to boost student achievement but instead is racist, sexist and unnecessary. Schools should take in to considerationRead MoreShould School Uniforms For Wear Uniforms?969 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrequired to wear uniforms? In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society this is a very controversial subject across America. Many object uniforms because they feel uniforms don t allow students to have the freedom to express themselves the way they want. People feel uniforms undermine children s individuality. However, taking into consideration facts from both sides, what remains most important is the child s academics. To improve academics, schools should require all students to wear a uniform. Though uniforms may not be theRead MoreAre School Uniforms Beneficial Or Not?1098 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAre School Uniforms Beneficial or Not? How does dressing and feeling the same as everybody else sound? Would it be enjoyable, or would it be no fun? According to Procon.org, the first recorded use of school uniforms in the United States was in 1994. In Europe around the early sixteenth century, school uniforms were made to tell the difference between poor students to the charity schools as opposed to other children. In London people thought that schools without uniforms were to be looked at as lower
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Violence against women in Bangladesh has largely been aggravated by certain socio-cultural factors such as lack of gender equality, lack of awareness and knowledge about right, poverty, low educational level, womens position in the family and cultural taboos regarding violence and rape. The consequences of rape and fairly recent form of violence acid throwing- have a serious impact on the victims position in the society and her life, her chances of marriage and her ability to maintain a decent life. The socio-cultural context of violence in Bangladesh: Well Known risk factors of violence and sexual assaults are prevalent in Bangladesh, among other illiteracy poverty and lack of education. Very few women are aware of their rights. From available research and other documents it is clear that violence against women in Bangladesh is a grave problem. However, this understanding has done little to redress the devaluation of women in the Bangladeshi culture. The general attitude is reflected in the lack of will to assist women effectively when they seek help. Media reports, records from the police, courts, and hospitals reflect that incidences of abuse against women are alarmingly on the rise. Each year more and more cases are reported to agencies set up to intervene in cases of violence against women. Rape, burns, battery, homicide, acid attack, abduction, trafficking are all seen to be on the rise every year. The general increase in media focus as well as activism by womens and human rights organizations however have created greater public awareness resulting in more frequent and open discussions leading to more attention to possible solutions of the problem. The consequences of violence: Violence against women has short and long term impact on both physical and mental health of victims. It affects not only womens own lives and productivity, but also those of other family members, especially children. Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world and its estimated prevalence rate of violence against women is extremely high which, in turn, is Ã¢â¬Ëan obstacle to the achievement of equality, development and peaceÃ¢â¬ (Johnson et al. , 2008, p. 16) Due to a lack of reliable base-line surveys, the exact number of women affected by violence is unknown . However, non-governmental organization (NGO) reports indicate that Bangladesh has one of the highest rate globally despite advancements of Women`s Rights and a strong history of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movements. Deeply embedded in cultural and socio-economic practices, violence against women is sanctioned by both society and the state, in the name of culture, tradition and Islamic religion. How it recognized? Recognizing violence against women as a violation of Human Rights is a significant turning-point in the struggle to end violence against women globally (UNIFEM, 2003). A human rights perspective broadens the definition of violence against women and Ã¢â¬Å"focuses attention on discrimination and inequalities that are maintained or tolerated by the state and that increase women`s vulnerability to violenceÃ¢â¬ (Johnson et al. , 2008, p. 4) Violence against women has been recognized as an Human Rights issue since the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, which established that Ã¢â¬Å"human rights of women and of the girl-child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rightsÃ¢â¬ (VDPA, Part I, para. 8). What are the consequences of that? A number of consequences have been found to be associated with intentional violence, such as: * Pelvic Infection * STDs * Sterility * Chronic pain * Gastrointestinal diseases * Homicide * Suicide What are various psychological symptoms are also associated with violence? These are: * Sleeping disorders * Depression * Trauma related symptoms * Low self-esteem * Suicide ideation and attempts. What the most common forms of violence In Bangladesh? 1. Fatwa violence against women in Bangladesh: Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world and its estimated prevalence rate of violence against women is extremely high which, in turn, is Ã¢â¬Ëan obstacle to the achievement of equality, development and peaceÃ¢â¬â¢ (Johnson et al. , 2008, p. 16). Due to lack of reliable base-line surveys, the exact number of women affected by violence is unknown (CEDAW/C/BGD/Q/7). However, non-governmental organization (NGO) reports indicate that Bangladesh has one of the highest rates globally, despite advancements of women`s rights and a strong history of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movements. Deeply embedded in cultural and socio-economic practices, violence against women is sanctioned by both society and the state, in the name of culture, tradition and Islamic religion. What is fatwa violence? Ã¢â¬ËThe fatwa (is) an interpretation of the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an and the -Prophet MuhammedÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings, has the potential to define everyday practices and modes of being for that religious leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s followers. Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËAlthough any Muslim can technically follow any fatwa, the norms and practices of their particular community will determine whether they carry it out. Black and Nadirsyah write: Ã¢â¬ËSimply stated, a fatwa is a legal opinion issued by an Islamic law specialist on a specific issue. Ã¢â¬â¢But then, later, they propose: Ã¢â¬ËA fatwa is a non-binding legal opinion or ruling given by a recognized Islamic legal specialist. Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËA small number of countries do give fatwas legal force, making them binding when gazetted and published. In some Mu slim countries, such as Bangladesh, it is an offence to issue an unauthorized fatwa. Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËFatwas are to be issued only by leading Islamic scholars because the ruling or opinion iven is to be arrived at through deep understanding and thorough knowledge of the ShariÃ¢â¬â¢a, drawing on the sources of Islamic law, namely the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an and the Sunnah of the Prophet, the opinions of the jurists of the four Sunni schools of law (madhabs) and by applying the methodology of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh). Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËAs Islam has no centralised, international priestly hierarchy, there is no uniform method for determining who can issue a valid fatwa, nor is there one definitive academic qualification on which a Mufti or AyatollahÃ¢â¬â¢s standing rests. There is a misconception that a fatwa is strictly an order to kill specified individual(s) but the truth of it is that fatwas are issued on all sorts of question, such as whether or not an autopsy is permissible under Musli m law. What are the overviews of international human rights commitments and existing situation in Bangladesh regarding Fatwa? The international law apparatus can be used as a functioning tool in offering ways of enforcement of Women? s Human Rights in multiple ways. The UN General Assembly has adopted numerous resolutions both on violence against women in general and on violence against women in specific contexts. For example, the Security Council Resolution 1325 (SCR 1325) calls for the protection of women in conflict situations, and their full inclusion in peace-building and post-conflict reconstruction (2000). It has also adopted resolutions on violence against vulnerable and disadvantaged groups of women (e. g. migrant women), and with respect to particular forms of violence (e. g. UN General Assembly Resolution Working towards the Eliminations of Crimes Against Women Committed in the Name of Honor (2004)) (Chinkin, 2010). The World Health Organization (WHO) further reports and highlights a connection between the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the prevention of VAW, claiming that working towards the MDG`s will reduce violence against women and preventing VAW will contribute to achieving the MDG`s (WHO 2005). There are numerous international human rights commitments which Bangladesh is obliged to respect, protect and fulfill, in relations to VAW. However, simply ratifying international conventions, covenants and treaties is not sufficient; they must be incorporated into domestic law in order to be effective. To offer an example, Bangladesh ratified the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution in 2002, but has failed to incorporate its provisions into domestic law. 2. Domestic Violence: What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is typically considered a private matter and is generally ignored by policies and programs. As a result, cases of domestic violence remain largely unknown and are reflected in official statistics. 3. Abduction: What is abduction? Of a person or people Kidnapping, the taking away of a person against the persons will Alien abduction, memories of being taken by apparently nonhuman entities Bride kidnapping, a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry Child abduction, the abduction or kidnapping of a young child (or baby) by an older person Express kidnapping, a method of abduction where a small ransom that a company or family can easily pay is requested. Tiger kidnapping, taking a hostage to force a loved one or associate of the victim to do something. Trafficking in women and children 4. Rape: Given that rape is stigmatized as loss for the women who are raped, such cases are also greatly under-reported. Marital rape is not recognized as an offence by the law 5. Acid Attack 6. Burn 7. Homicide : What is homicide? Homicide (Latin: homicidium, Latin: homo human being + Latin: caedere to cut, kill) is the act of a human killing another human. [Murder, for example, is a type of homicide. It can also describe a person who has committed such an act, though this use is rare in modern English. Homicide is not always a punishable act under criminal law, and is different to murder from a formal legal point of view. Criminal homicide: Criminal homicide takes several forms and includes certain unintentional killings. The crime committed in a criminal homicide is determined by the state of mind of the defendant and statutes defining the crime. Murder, for example, is usually an intentional crime. State-sanctioned homicide Homicides may also be non-criminal when conducted with the sanction of the state. The most obvious examples are capital punishment, in which the state determines that a person should die. Homicides committed in action during war are usually not subject to criminal prosecution either. In addition, members of law enforcement entities are also allowed to commit justified homicides within certain parameters which, when met, do not usually result in prosecution; see deadly force. Global statistics: A 2011 study by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime brought together a wide variety of data sources to create a worldwide picture of trends and developments. Sources included multiple agencies and field offices of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, and national and international sources from 207 countries. The report estimated that in 2010, the total number of homicides globally was 468,000. More than a third (36%) occurred in Africa, 31% in the Americas, 27% in Asia, 5% in Europe and 1% in Oceania. Since 1995, the homicide rate has been falling in Europe, North America, and Asia, but has risen to a near crisis point in Central America and the Caribbean. Of all homicides worldwide, 82% of the victims were male and 18% were female; of the female victims, 40 to 70% were linked to partner- or family-related violence. On a per-capita scaled level, the homicide rate in Africa and the Americas (at 17 and 16 per 100,000 population, respectively) is more than double the global average (6. per 100,000), whereas in Asia, Europe and Oceania (between 3 and 4 per 100,000) it is roughly half. Forty-two percent of homicides globally are committed using firearms. 8. Psychological Abuse : What is psychological abuse? Psychological abuse, also referred to as emotional abuse or mental abuse, is a form of abuse characterized by a person subjecting or exposing another to behavior that may r esult in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Such abuse is often associated with situations of power imbalance, such as abusive relationships, bullying, child abuse and abuse in the workplace. There were no consensus views about the definition of emotional abuse. As such, clinicians and researchers have offered sometimes divergent definitions of emotional abuse. However, the widely used Conflict Tactics Scale measures roughly twenty distinct acts of psychological aggression in three different categories: * Verbal aggression (e. g. , saying something that upsets or annoys someone else); * Dominant behaviours (e. g. preventing someone to have contact with their family); * Jealous behaviors (e. g. , accusing a partner of maintaining other parallel relations). Effects: English, et al. report that children whose families are characterized by interpersonal violence, including psychological aggression and verbal aggression, may exhibit a range of serious disorders, including chronic depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder , dissociation and anger. A 2008 study by Walsh and Shulman reports that relationship dissatisfaction for both partners is more likely to be associated with, in women, psychological aggression and, in men, with withdrawal. Clinical perception: A study found that abuse committed by women, including emotional and psychological abuse such as controlling or humiliating behavior, was typically viewed as less serious or detrimental than identical abuse committed by men. Additionally, Sorenson and Taylor found that respondents had a broader range of opinions about female perpetrators, representing a lack of clearly defined mores when compared to responses about male perpetrators. It is suggested that some forms of psychopathology lead to some men adopting patriarchal ideology to justify and rationalize their own pathology * Sexual Abuse of children in the family Dowry related violence * Violence During Pregnancy * Forced Prostitution Is there any Violence against Bangladeshi women in abroad? * Answer: yes of course ( source Parvez Babul | 14 May 2012 5:56 pm at daily new age) The women, facing violence by their husbands/inmates, die many times before their death! Moreover, the rate of violence against Banglad eshi women in abroad is beyond the imagination. In most cases victims are helpless there, for many reasons as in foreign land. I have tried to portray a simple picture of violence against Bangladeshi women in abroad to realise how endless inhumane lives they pass, and even killed! Most of the victim told me that, before wedding, the parents or guardians are unable to collect enough information about the grooms staying abroad. Consequently, they have to believe the grooms no matter how false information they give. But after marriage, when the fate of women starts burning, nothing can be done, but have to accept unless the lives of women turn into ashes. Sometimes greed of being migrants of family members with the help of migrant husbands and other causes makes some parents and guardians more interested to catch Bangladeshi grooms in abroad. I am certain that many of you know more or less about the violence against Bangladeshi women in abroad. Yet I like to present here one of the touchy case studies of some sufferer and severely injured women to realise the reality and state of grave inhumanity, so that if we can do something needed in favour of them in future. Koli (not her real name) was an educated girl and had an affair with a person in Dhaka. Both she and her lover were planning to marry on upcoming ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day. But KoliÃ¢â¬â¢s parents got a proposal through a matchmaker that there is a Bangladeshi Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ groom, have been staying in Sweden for a few years. If they wed Koli with that groom, no dowry or gift is needed rather the groom will manage the cost of wedding. In addition, both Koli and her family members will be able to settle in Sweden. Very lucrative proposal! KoliÃ¢â¬â¢s parents agreed and the wedding was done within five days without taking consent from Koli. Koli unwillingly went Sweden with her husband. After going there within a few days she discovered that her husband drinks wine regularly, have realtion with other women and tortures mentally and physically Koli if she protests. Her husband kept her confined at the residence, and she was not allowed to go outside or contact any one. Even she could not contact her parents in Bangladesh, because she was not allowed to touch her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s mobile phone and talk with anyone. Koli could do nothing, but cried like a bird confined in a cage! She became sick due to torture and after suffering a few days, she was taken to a doctor by her husband unwillingly. She kept the fact hidden of torturing by her husband, and told the doctor that she got the marks of injuries in her body due to fall down at the bathroom. After seven months Koli felt that she was pregnant. Getting the news, her husband kicked at her belly, bleeding started and the embryo was killed. This is just one of the very simple stories of violence I mentioned. There are many women who have been being tortured more dangerously by their husbands; became disabled, passing lives in shelter centres, unable to continue legal action against the husbands because they fear of more torture. Some husbands have one more wives, took from Bangladesh; even some wives are denied their rights to the children. Some husbands make fabricated story in favour of them before wedding, but in the practical field it is found that some husbands even unemployed in abroad and were sentenced to imprisonment for drug addiction and other unlawful activities. Some husbands torture their wives in the streets, parks, shopping malls and other places. Evidence shows that violence against Bangladeshi women exists in many countries, and some women have been killed by their husbands. In addition, some persons take women in abroad by the name of Ã¢â¬ËmarriageÃ¢â¬â¢, sale them in the brothel or deal with sex trade there forcibly against the will of those women. Some sufferer women suggested to the parents of Bangladeshi women not to become agree instantly to wed their daughters with the grooms live in abroad. Rather the parents must take some time to know details about the grooms as more as possible through different sources. The Bengali community in abroad, our embassies in different countries, and some other migrants should play helpful role in this regard. Though there is no enough data on the violence against Bangladeshi women in abroad, so necessary support, capacity-building and research must conduct to address the isssue and save lives of Bangladeshi women in abroad. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates in 2002 that around 20-70% of abused women around the world never told another person about the abuse until being interviewed for a study by WHO. Amnesty International mentioned that around the world at least one woman in every three has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime. Every year, violence in the home and the community devastates the lives of millions of women. Violence against women is rooted in a global culture of discrimination which denies women equal rights with men. Amnesty added that there is an unbroken spectrum of violence that women face at the hands of people who exert control over them. States have the obligation to prevent, protect against, and punish violence against women whether perpetrated by private or public actors. States have a responsibility to uphold standards of due diligence and take steps to fulfill their responsibility to protect individuals from human rights abuses, the report concludes. What are the Experts suggested ensuring equality? Non-violent relationship with women and men through: Ã¢â¬ ¢Fairness and negotiation; Ã¢â¬ ¢Honesty and accountability; Respect to the women; Ã¢â¬ ¢Trust and support; Ã¢â¬ ¢Shared responsibility; Ã¢â¬ ¢Positive parenting; Ã¢â¬ ¢Non-threatening behavior; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Economic partnership. One question always comes in my mind that physically the same red blood we men and women carry by born, same rights we have in the constitution, but why we cannot be equal as human beings through womenÃ¢â¬â ¢s empowerment, establishing gender equity and equality? Steps of preventing that violence: Nevertheless, considering these Women`s Human Rights (WHR) enforcements internationally, multiple forms of violence against women remain high with considerably slow progress (Reilly 2009). Therefore, violence against women is an issue that requires continuous redressing to guarantee women`s full enjoyments of their rights. To promote equal status for women, such violence must be recognised as a Human rights violation requiring immediate actions (Desai et al, 2002, p. 30). Violence against Women (VAW) is the most obvious gender-specific violation of Human Rights, and is a form of discrimination against women. It enforces women`s subordination and patriarchal structures throughout all levels of society, leading to issues such as the undervaluation of women`s economic contributions. VAW is not only embedded in gender norms; gender norms are also constructed through VAW, and Ã¢â¬Å"the low status of women Ã¢â¬â economically, socially, culturally and politically both constitutes and enables the further denial of human rights in gender-specific ways, often at the hands of family members, male and femaleÃ¢â¬ (Reilly, 2009, p. 78). Thus, VAW both reflects and determines gendered social structures (McMillan, 2007). That is why framing VAW as a Human Rights violation requiring immediate action is crucial to challenge the economic, social and cultural marginalisation of women in Bangladesh.
Thursday, April 9, 2020
Death And Dying In A Prayer For Owen Meany The theme of death and dying in A Prayer for Owen Meany by John Irving is constant throughout the novel. Many events that prepare the characters for death occur through the death of Tabitha Wheelwright, through Owen's faith and religion, also through Owen's own death. In relation to the book and reality, there are events in life that people encounter that prepare themselves for death. In the novel, the event of Tabitha Wheelwright's death is the first and also one of the most important events. John and Owen experience death of a loved one at an early age when Owen accidentally kills Tabitha with a baseball. After this event John and Owen encounter many feelings that are associated with death. John felt anger towards his mother for leaving him so soon. John wanting to know many things about his mother could not be answered. This is evident in pages 34-35 where John wanted to know who his father was, but his mother had already left before she could even tell him. Owen felt the emotion of guilt. Though the death of John's mother was an accident, Owen blames himself. ?GOD HAS TAKEN YOUR MOTHER. MY HANDS WERE THE INSTRUMENT. GOD HAS TAKEN MY HANDS. I AM GOD'S INSTRUMENT.? - P. 87 In this quote, the only way for Owen to deal with the accident is by associating it with his faith. John's and Owen's feelings are natural when people lose a close one, but it helps them embra ce death later down the road, and also their own. Owen's unconditional faith helped John go on after his mother's death. Owen's constant bible references made John feel comfortable about death than to fear it. ?I am the resurrection and the life, saith the Lord. He believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live, and whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die.? ? P. 181 In this quote, Owen is reciting out from the bible to John to convince him of life after death. When you die, it is not the end, but the beginning of a new life with God. ?Into paradise may the angels lead you.? ? P. 616 Owen telling John to reassure him that the angels will guide him into Heaven after death. Owen's complete faith in God helped John understand death as not a tragedy but a transitional journey. In the second half of the novel, Owen realizes that he will die and that he is God's instrument. Owen was placed on earth for a purpose, which he completes at the end. Owen's death helped him deal with his own death, preparing him for the worst. ?LAST NITE I HAD A DREAM. NOW I KNOW FOUR THINGS. I KNOW THAT MY VOICE DOESN'T CHANGE ? BUT I STILL DON'T KNOW WHY. I KNOW THAT I AM GOD'S INSTRUMENT. I KNOW WHEN I'M GOING TO DIE ? AND NOW A DREAM HAS SHOWN ME HOW I'M GOING TO DIE. I'M GOING TO BE A HERO! I TRUST THAT GOD WILL HELP ME, BECAUSE WHAT I'M SUPPOSED TO DO LOOKS VERY HARD.? ? P. 416 This is where Owen has his dream, which tells him that he will be a hero by saving the orphan children from the grenade, which leads to his death. Also another event where Owen interrupted the Angel of Death made him believe he was going to be used to kill Tabitha Wheelwright. ?In Owen's opinion, he had INTERUPTED AN ANGEL, he had DISTURBED AN ANGEL AT WORK, he had UPSET THE SCHEME OF THINGS.? ? P. 102 This quote helps Owen explain and also convince himself that he was used to kill Tabitha because God had made him his instrument. Tabitha died for a reason, and God made sure that it was by Owen's hands because it brought John and Owen together. Owen Meany's death and him being an instrument of God, it helped John believe in God and that afterlife is true. Owen and John experienced death and dying through many deaths from the beginning to the end of the novel. Many events happened to John to lead him to believe in
Monday, March 9, 2020
Hay Que, Tener Que and Similar Spanish Phrases If you have to say theres something you have to do or that has to be done, heres how you can do it in Spanish. Tener Que Perhaps the most common way of saying to have to in Spanish is tener que followed by an infinitive. Tengo que pagar impuestos. (I have to pay taxes.) Mi padre tiene que ir a Barranquilla. (My father has to go to Barranquilla.) Tener que is the phrase for statements of necessity that is usually learned first by students of Spanish because it is very common and doesnt require the knowledge of any verb conjugation beyond the forms of tener. But there are other ways as well to make statements of necessity. Hay Que Another that is even easier to learn because it doesnt require any conjugation is hay que, again followed by an infinitive: Hay que ser muy listo. (It is necessary to be very ready.) Ã ¿Por quÃ © hay que usar cÃ ³digos? (Why is it necessary to use codes?) Necesitar Que and Es Necesario Que As might be expected, some other phrases used in statements of necessity are closely related to the word necessary. One is the impersonal verb necesitar, meaning to be necessary, which can be followed by que and a verb in the subjunctive mood. Necesito que un experto me contacte. (I need an expert to contact me. A word-for-word translation would be: I need that an expert contact me. Many of the other translations below where the subjunctive is used follow a similar pattern.) Necesitas que alguien te escuche. (You need someone to listen to you.) Similarly, it is possible to use the impersonal phrase es necesario que, which also is followed by a verb in the subjunctive. Es necesario que Europa conserve su herencia. (It is necessary for Europe to retain its heritage.) Es necesario que nos envÃ en los datos. (It is necessary for them to send us the data.) Two Es Phrases Less common than the above is the impersonal phrase es preciso, which also means it is necessary. It is usually followed by an infinitive, but it also can be followed by que and a subjunctive verb. Es preciso revisar el diseÃ ±o y la organizaciÃ ³n del programa. (It is necessary to change the design and organization of the program.) Es preciso que trabajen. (It is necessary for them to work.) The impersonal phrase es importante, meaning it is important, is used in the same way, although it isnt as forceful as es necesario. Es importante saber sobre interoperabilidad. (It is important to know about interoperability.) Es importante que el sitio web estÃ © en espaÃ ±ol. (It is important that the website be in Spanish.) Urgir Finally, to indicate that something is urgently necessary, it is possible to use the impersonal phrase urge que from the verb urgir, again followed by a verb in the subjunctive. Urge que Xcacel sea declarada como reserva natural protegida. (It is urgent that Xcacel be declared a natural protected reserve.) Me urge que todo el mundo lo lea. (It is urgent to me that everybody read it.) The verb urgir can also stand alone as a verb to mean to be urgently needed. Urge atenciÃ ³n inmediata el caso de los asesinatos de mujeres en Ciudad Jurez. The case of women murdered in Cuidad Juarez urgently needs attention.) Me urge ayuda sobre los siguientes terminales. (I urgently need help with the following terms.)
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Principal components and Changes to peasant and tribal life - Assignment Example After the establishment of the economic policies and the new reform, the Ottoman decided to turn their interest back to the provinces in the Arab countries. They began using large farmsteads in the form of profitable private holdings. Also, they gave out land in the form of grants to the migrants population and the colonists. Other areas that were used for sheep and goats were turned into farms. The kind of authority that existed before was cut completely without leverage. From the perspective of the peasantry, the expectations of the nature of the behavior of the urban notables and the rural shaykhs had to relate to the authority that they had. Later the forces that exist in the global market and the increase in the administrative centralization cause an adverse impact on the lifestyle of the peasants. Also, also the change in the previous relationship that between the peasantry and the traditional elites cause changes in the understanding of the Muslims on their religious identity with relation to the Islamic practice gradual formalization. The notablesÃ¢â¬â¢ authority large developed to become the mediators between the peasantry and the formal Islamic institutions. A large number of the proletariat did not have a direct interaction or access to the facilities, and this caused a vague understanding of what constituted the Islamic behavior. In the middle nineteenth century, an increase in the interest in the authority of both the rural shaykhs and the urban notables became tied to the state of the European economy.